Buddhism - Wikipedia. Buddhism is a religion. Buddhism originated in India, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India during the middle ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada (Pali: . Buddhism is the world's fourth- largest religion, with over 5. Buddhists. Practices of Buddhism include Refuge, Samatha, Vipassan. Theravada has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.
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Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon and Tiantai (Tendai), is found throughout East Asia. Rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a third branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India. The details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. He meditated on this alone for an extended period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering and means to overcome suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way (Skt. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, and died at the age of 8. Kushinagar, India.
Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 1. Buddhist sub- schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
Nalanda, Bihar, India. Dukkha is a central concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine, and a central characteristic of life in this world. It can be translated as .
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This keeps us caught in sa. The clinging and craving produces karma, which ties us to samsara, the round of death and rebirth.
This also means that no more karma is being produced, and rebirth ends. The Theravada tradition regards insight into the four truths as liberating in itself. In Buddhism, dukkha is one of the three marks of existence, along with impermanence and anatt. It refers to the theory of rebirth and .
Liberation from this cycle of existence, Nirvana, has been the foundation and the most important historical justification of Buddhism. In Buddhist thought, this rebirth does not involve any soul, because of its doctrine of anatt. The majority of Buddhist traditions, in contrast, assert that vij. The rebirth depends on the merit or demerit gained by one's karma, as well as those accrued on one's behalf by a family member. However there are passages in the Samyutta Nikaya of the Pali Canon that seem to lend support to the idea that the Buddha taught of an intermediate stage between one life and the next.
It is the teacher who is the gateway to the powers of the tantric deity or Buddha and their secret. Following the Buddha's death, Buddhism developed into two.
Good, skilful deeds (Pali: . The existence of Karma is a core belief in Buddhism, as with all major Indian religions, it implies neither fatalism nor that everything that happens to a person is caused by Karma. In the Buddhist traditions, life aspects affected by the law of karma in past and current births of a being include form of rebirth, realm of rebirth, social class, character and major circumstances of a lifetime. Further, a person can transfer one's own good karma to living family members and ancestors. An important additional practice is a kind and compassionate attitude toward every living being and the world.
Devotion is also important in some Buddhist traditions, and in the Tibetan traditions visualizations of deities and and mandalas are important. The value of textual study is regarded differently in the various Buddhist traditions. It is central to Theravada and highly important ot Tibetan Buddhism, while the Zen tradition takes an ambiguous stance. The Buddhist path. While the Noble Eightfold Path is best- known in the west, a wide variety of practices and stages have been used and described in the Buddhist traditions. Even in the Theravada canon, the Pali- suttas, various often irreconcilable sequences can be found.
According to Carol Anderson, the Theravada- canon lacks . It was a part of Buddha's first sermon, where he presented the Noble Eightfold Path that was a 'middle way' between the extremes of asceticism and hedonistic sense pleasures. In Buddhism, states Harvey, the doctrine of . These eight factors are: Right View (or Right Understanding), Right Intention (or Right Thought), Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. This Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha's Four Noble Truths, and asserts the path to the cessation of dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness). Right resolvesamyag sa. Right actionsamyag karman,samm.
Right livelihoodsamyag . For lay Buddhists, the canonical texts state right livelihood as abstaining from wrong livelihood, explained as not becoming a source or means of suffering to sentient beings by cheating them, or harming or killing them in any way. Right effortsamyag vy. Right mindfulnesssamyag sm. Right concentrationsamyag sam. A Bodhisattva refers to one who is on the path to buddhahood.
Between 1st and 3rd century CE, this tradition introduced the Ten Bhumi doctrine, which means ten levels or stages of awakening. This development was followed by the acceptance that it is impossible to achieve Buddhahood in one (current) lifetime, and the best goal is not nirvana for oneself, but Buddhahood after climbing through the ten levels during multiple rebirths. Mahayana scholars then outlined an elaborate path, for monks and laypeople, and the path includes the vow to help teach Buddhist knowledge to other beings, so as to help them cross samsara and liberate themselves, once one reaches the Buddhahood in a future rebirth. One part of this path are the P. Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood). The most discussed Paramita and the highest rated perfection in Mahayana texts is the .
This insight in the Mahayana tradition, states Sh. Pali texts employ the Brahmanical motif of the triple refuge, found in the Rigveda 9. Rigveda 6. 4. 6. 9 and Chandogya Upanishad 2. Tibetan Buddhism sometimes adds a fourth refuge, in the lama. The three refuges are believed by Buddhists to be protective and a form of reverence. The Three Jewels are: The Buddha, the Gotama, the Blessed One, the Awakened with true knowledge.
The Dharma, the precepts, the practice, the Four Truths, the Eightfold Path. The Sangha, order of monks, the community of Buddha's disciples. Reciting the three refuges is considered in Buddhism not as a place to hide, rather a thought that purifies, uplifts and strengthens.
It consists of right speech, right action and right livelihood. It includes the Five Precepts for laypeople, Eight or Ten Precepts for monastic life, as well as rules of Dhamma (Vinaya or Patimokkha) adopted by a monastery.
The five precepts apply to both male and female devotee, and these are. Killing in Buddhist belief leads to rebirth in the hellish realm, and for a longer time in more severe conditions if the murder victim was a monk. Adultery, similarly, invites a rebirth as prostitute or in hell, depending on whether the partner was unmarried or married. Saving animals from slaughter for meat, is believed to be a way to acquire merit for better rebirth. These moral precepts have been voluntarily self- enforced in lay Buddhist culture through the associated belief in karma and rebirth. The monastic life in Buddhism have additional precepts as part of patimokkha, and unlike lay people, transgressions by monks do invite sanctions.
Full expulsion from sangha follows any instance of killing, engaging in sexual intercourse, theft or false claims about one's knowledge. Temporary expulsion follows a lesser offence. The sanctions vary by the monastic fraternity (nikaya). The precepts for monks in many Buddhist fraternities are eight (asta shila) or ten (das shila). Four of these are same as for the lay devotee: no killing, no stealing, no lying, and no intoxicants. In addition to these precepts, Buddhist monasteries have hundreds of rules of dhamma conduct, which are a part of its patimokkha. It includes the Patimokkha, a set of 2.
Theravadin tradition. The precise content of the Vinaya Pitaka (scriptures on the Vinaya) differs in different schools and tradition, and different monasteries set their own standards on its implementation.
The list of pattimokkha is recited every fortnight in a ritual gathering of all monks. Buddhist text with vinaya rules for monasteries have been traced in all Buddhist traditions, with the oldest surviving being the ancient Chinese translations. Monastic communities in the Buddhist tradition, cut normal social ties to family and community, and live as . Within a monastic fraternity, a sangha has its own rules. A monk abides by these institutionalized rules, and living life as the vinaya prescribes it is not merely a means, but very nearly the end in itself. Transgressions by a monk on Sangha vinaya rules invites enforcement, which can include temporary or permanent expulsion. Meditation and insight.
The Buddhist tradition has incorporated two traditions regarding the use of dhy. There is a tradition that stresses attaining praj. But it has also incorporated the yogic tradition, as reflected in the use of jhana, which is rejected in other sutras as not resulting in the final result of liberation.
It is a practice in which the attention of the mind is first narrowed to the focus on one specific object, such as the breath, a concrete object, or a specific thought, mental image or mantra.